Bike tires have tubes in them. The reason yours does is because the spoke holes cannot seal air inside the tire. When you get a puncture on a spoke-wheeled bike, you patch the tube (unless there’s a large-ish hole in the tire, in which case you replace the tire).
You most likely won’t know if a spoke gets loose while you’re riding. And it’d be pretty rare for that to happen. On bicycles, you see the wheel wobble a little bit (and it can be an issue with brake caliper clearance — not an issue with disk brakes on a motorcycle).
When replacing or repairing a tire, you’ll get the rubber part only. The rim and spokes are all part of the wheel (what holds the tire).